El gran problema con el que se enfrentan los cartógrafos al hacer mapas es como presentar en una superficie plana de dos dimensiones un elemento, la Tierra, que tiene tres dimensiones. If you’re starting out from 51º N—the latitude of Flanders, where Mercator was from—a Mercator-derived course from Bruges to Edinburgh could be so far off that you’d miss the UK entirely. Mercator selbst hatte klargestellt, dass seine 1569 ausdrücklich und ausschließlich ad usum navigantium („zum Gebrauch der Seefahrer“) veröffentlichte Projektion sich für geographische Kartenwerke nicht eignete; in seinem umfangreichen Atlas von 1595 hat er sie daher nicht verwendet. See the Peters Projection Map or the Hobo-Dyer, with the equator in the MIDDLE of the map in order to give an accurate representation. if (w<600){ It would not be the shortest route – for that you would follow a great circle but that does involve adjusting your compass bearing as you progress so you need to know where you are. Especially that gif which scales down the distortion due to Meractor projection. En annan fråga om "Mercator har fel". Um die Lage in Achsrichtung zu bestimmen, muss die Vergrößerung über die Strecke von der Berührungslinie bis zum zu projizierenden Punkt rechnerisch integriert werden. Your email address will not be published. This distortion gets exponentially worse as you approach the poles. Data and tools: This visualization was made using the Leafletjs javascript mapping library and country shapefiles (converted to geojson). Svar 1: Kära nån. Mercator projection, type of map projection introduced in 1569 by Gerardus Mercator.It is often described as a cylindrical projection, but it must be derived mathematically.The meridians are equally spaced parallel vertical lines, and the parallels of latitude are parallel horizontal straight lines that are spaced farther and farther apart as their distance from the Equator increases. Projection Selection. This next graph shows each country plotted with their actual land area and apparent land area as shown on a Mercator projection. 1: Projection No. Of course Mercator doesn’t “work for navigation” in the general sense. The Mercator projection is infamous for its distortion at high latitudes. I calculated the area in two ways, one assuming latitude and longitude are rectangular coordinates (i.e. This is the original graph that keeps the shape of the countries exactly the same and just scales the size. 2: Mode: [ Info ] Simple Expert . In every case, distortion is no greater than 1 part in 1,000. La visión esférica de las imágenes desde el e… While it’s well known that the mercator projection distorts the world, the maps here show very clearly by how much. Dennoch wurden weiterhin häufig die überlieferten Karten mit der Mercator-Projektion genutzt. } Your email address will not be published. Dabei werden innerhalb des Zylinders liegende Urbilder in Umfangsrichtung umso stärker vergrößert, je näher sie an der Achse liegen, außerhalb liegende werden verkleinert. One of the best alternatives to the Mercator projection was presented in 1974 at a conference in Germany by Dr. Arno Peters, who claimed he invented it … World Population Distribution by Latitude and Longitude, Scaling the physical size of States in the US to reflect population size (animation), Sizing the States Based On Electoral Votes. For many people, the Earth as they know it is heavily informed by the Mercator projection – a tool used for nautical navigation that eventually became the world’s most widely recognized map. Das Problem: Auf dieser Karte wird das Verhältnis der Länder zueinander verzerrt – und das in keinem geringen Ausmaß, wie diese animierte Karte veranschaulicht. El primero de ellos es asimilar la tierra a una esfera, sí sabemos que la tierra es redonda, pero no es una esfera perfecta ni mucho menos. Start with a sphere or ellipsoid because that is the true form of the Earth. Der Bereich bleibt dem Leben treu, jedoch auf Kosten von Form, Entfernung und den meisten anderen Faktoren. David, If you look at the Map, Germany is dead centre, (map created by a German Cartographer, so the equator is in the bottom third of the map. Van Gogh As Drawn By A Traveling Salesman, Visualizing the Variation in Sunlight by Latitude and Time of Year, Post-Retirement Calculator: Will My Money Survive Early Retirement? The Mercator projection has been used as a template for world maps since 1569. And while it is very big, it’s nowhere near the size of the continent of Africa. This is why we tend to think of places like Greenland as much larger than they actually are. } Schneidende Projektionen (in normaler Lage) Berührung vs. Schnitt. The map is thereby conformal. function mobilewarn(){ Von der Zylinderachse aus kann jeder Punkt des Globus geometrisch auf eine Linie projiziert werden, die senkrecht zu diesem Großkreis liegt. Loved your maps. The transverse Mercator projection, also known as the Gauss-Krüger projection, is similar to Mercator except that the cylinder touches the sphere or ellipsoid along a meridian instead of the equator. In this calculation, we create a new set of coordinates by calculating the distance between the center of the polygon and each set of coordinates and change the coordinates to reflect the shrinking of distance between longitude lines as you head towards the poles. Based on this post Convert lat/lon to pixel coordinate?, that works fine with a real Mercator projection. A great tool for educators. } else { This is why Greenland, Russia and Canada shrink so much in height and width in the animation, they are fairly high in latitude in the Northern Hemisphere. document.getElementById('mercatormap').contentWindow.location.reload(); How this “globe to flat” surface conversion was d… I recalculated the latitude and longitude coordinates so that the mercator projection would show the correct sizes. Video as part of a course by Emarin Norway. Flatten each one of these zones.What’s the result?It’s the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection! Mercator projection) and the other was the actual area. Making Sense Of The World, One Map At A Time. Klassische Mercator-Projektion: Die Regionen in Polnähe sind viel grösser als jene in Äquatornähe. How many Americans have contracted Coronavirus? I have. Pressing on the button animates the country ‘shrinking’ to its actual size or ‘growing’ to the size shown on the mercator projection. The students applauded and all subscribed to r/mapporn[1] that day and accepted the Peirce Quincuncial projection as the coolest projection ever. You may be surprised at what you find! The … It was inspired by a similar animation that I saw on reddit and decided I wanted to try to build the same thing. document.getElementById('sizescatter').contentWindow.location.reload(); Pero empecemos por el principio. Only a globe “works.” A heading selected on a Mercator projection will be wrong unless it’s due east, west, north, or south. } }, 150); 2. } Background. It is formed by projecting the globe onto a cylinder A variant of the was adopted by Google maps, which helped establish it as the informal standard for web-based maps (although Google maps now also uses a globe view, instead of a map projection when zooming out to a very wide view). This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The Transverse Mercator projection illustrated above (Figure 2.22.2) minimizes distortion within UTM zone 30. function reloadiframes(){ Countries close to the equator barely change, whereas countries further north shrink dramatically. c. Direct Transformation (Φ,λ to N,E). Bei der Mercator-Projektion wird um die Erde ein gedachter Zylinder gelegt, der diese entlang eines Großkreises berührt oder in zwei Kreisen beiderseits dieses Großkreises schneidet. It is in fact impossible to show the poles on a Mercator map — they are infinitely far away. With any map projection style, the big challenge lies in depicting a spherical object as a 2D graphic. Have you ever wondered how many of those tiny countries could be fit into those big countries? If you're thinking of a world map, you're probably thinking about the Mercator projection, which flattens the globe into a rectangular presentation — and in the process, severely distorts the size of areas closer to the poles. As you move towards the poles on a globe, the distance between longitude lines decreases as a function (cosine) of latitude. You already know that our world, planet earth is a globe. General Notation and Definitions. If you followed a constant compass bearing from Bruges to Edinburgh it would be a straight line on a Mercator map and if you could keep to that exact bearing it would get you exactly there. The mercator projection is a commonly used projection on computer maps because it has perpendicular latitude and longitude lines (forming rectangles). mobilewarn(); Have you ever considered how these countries and landscapes on a globe were marked up in a two-dimensional map? Die Erdoberfläche ist in erster Näherung eine Kugeloberfläche, die nicht verzerrungsfrei auf eine ebene Karte abgebildet werden kann. Is Greenland really as big as all of Africa? Later, however, I learned that while it is the largest state, it is actually only about 1/5 the size of the lower 48 states. As a result the tops (northern ends) of countries will shrink more than the bottoms (southern ends) of countries in the Northern Hemisphere and vice versa in the Southern Hemisphere. Shouldn’t it be distributed equally north and south? Ellipsoid Constants. Transverse Mercator Projections (After Stem (1989)). Foi elaborada no século XVI com a expansão marítima europeia. You can fit the USA, India, Europe, and China into Africa and still have space for Liberia and Japan. And Russia is the country with the largest absolute difference between these two sizes. Most countries lie north of the equator (which is south of the wide part of Africa and south of India). You can find them in geojson format by googling “geojson countries”. This is incorrect because as you move towards the poles the distances between longitude lines decreases. That was awesome! 3. The result is a conformal projection that does not maintain true directions. What I think going on is that when using Web Mercator projection it gets really distorted closer to the poles (north, and south), and its also projecting the entire planet. mercator map vs peters projektion. mm.height = mm.contentWindow.document.body.scrollHeight+20+"px"; Select two projections: Projection No. As it shows, Greenland is the country that has the largest percent difference between its apparent size in a Mercator projection and it’s real size (it’s only about 1/4 of the apparent size). ss.height = ss.contentWindow.document.body.scrollHeight+20+"px"; I am an Indian philosopher and and conducts talk sessions, for any help contact me via my mail address. //this function is called from the javascript from within the iframe after the contents of iframe are loaded (and after an additional 150ms delay) window.addEventListener("orientationchange", function() { In the Mercator projection it looks almost the size of Africa. The most impressive demonstration of this issue I’ve ever come across. TRANSVERSE MERCATOR AND LAMBERT CONFORMAL CONIC MAP PROJECTION FUNCTIONS Alan Vonderohe (February 2020) Contents 1. If a navigator wishes to sail from Spain to the West Indies using this map, all they have to do is draw a line between the two points. Visualizing Longevity Risk, Greenhouse gas emissions from airplane flights, The 4% Rule, Trinity Study and Safe Withdrawal Rates Calculator, When Is Purchase And Sale Agreement Signed, What Is Our Agreement About What To Do With The Exceptions To The Law Of Demand, What Is An Agreement How It Will Be Classified, What Are The Other Rules In Subject Verb Agreement. Are there set points for each location like in traditional latitude and longitude or do they change? Many feel that these discrepancies reflect racism and prejudice against underprivileged and developing countries. My son has also remarked that Greenland is very big. For those who wonder why the northern hemisphere shrinks so much, the equator runs through Borneo, which is low down on the map; at the top of the bottom third of the map. The Mercator map was designed as an aid to navigators with straight lines, loxodromes or rhumb lines—representing lines of constant compass bearing—that are perfect for "true" direction. The map above shows the distortion in sizes of countries due to the mercator projection. Actually Mercator was a navigator and his map works for navigation, other projections don’t do that. Any Mercator map you've ever seen must cut off the top/bottom edges at some arbitrary point. The Mercator projection (/ m ər ˈ k eɪ t ər /) is a cylindrical map projection presented by Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569. Projection Selection. mercator map vs peters projektion. These geojson polygons are plotted here using the Mercator projection using the leaflet javascript library. There was a school-wide renouncement of outdated colonialist maps and south-up maps (like the ones they definitely 100% use in Australia) were hung up across the northern hemisphere. Drag and drop countries around the map to compare their relative size. Fifty-nine variations on this projection are used to minimize distortion in the other 59 UTM zones. I’m wondering how this is scaled between Mercator and Real. Most maps are very distorted to the Northern Hemisphere. Map found via reddit, click for larger version While it's well known that the mercator projection distorts the world, the maps here show very clearly by how much. document.getElementById('mobilewarning').innerHTML="On mobile devices, visualizations are best viewed in landscape mode. As it shows, Greenland is the country that has the largest percent difference between its apparent size in a Mercator projection and it’s real size (it’s only about 1/4 of the apparent size). Your email address will not be published. Projection Constants. Required fields are marked *. Or: → Selection by thumbnail → Select from list. a. Projection-Specific Notation. setTimeout(function (){ Is it fair to call it “real”? In the previous version of this animation, I calculated the latitude and longitude coordinates for the outline of the “real” size by modifying the original latitude and longitude by the ratio of these two areas to draw the new smaller, “real” country size. Areas far from the equator are distorted in terms of their distances and are shown much larger than they actually are. }, false); I'm facing a problem with an svg map from openstreet map, wich use the "Google Mercator projection with simplification on grid(1000)". The table also shows the top 10 countries whose size is overestimated (and the difference in land area in square kilometers or as a percentage reduction from the size in the Mercator projection). mercatorprojektion vs real. The further you go away from the equator, the worse the error. Select two projections: Projection No. Mercator’s Rise to the Top. Your email address will not be published. 2: Mode: [ Info ] Simple Expert . 4. The shrinkage is a function of latitude and the confusion stems from the fact that the equator isn’t shown on the map. I’m assuming it’s accurate based purely on area (sqkm) based around a centroid; however, when I visually compare the northern border of the US with the southern border of Canada in the “real” view, it’s clear they don’t fit together. David, that is because when two thirds of the map is allocated to the northern hemisphere (see where the equator is, two thirds of the way down) and only one third to the southern hemisphere, then northern hemisphere countries are over-sized (hugely towards the top of the map) – hence this accurate representation of “shrinkage” when you represent them accurate to surface area. The Mercator projection was developed in 1569 by Gerardus Mercator as a navigational tool. Canada and the USA segments fit together for me. mm2 = document.getElementById('mercatormap'); Der Gall Peters ist möglicherweise fast so schlecht wie die Mercator-Projektion. Antwort 1: Oh gute Soße nein. Ein weiteres Unterscheidungsmerkmal "echter" Projektionen liegt darin, ob die Projektionsfläche den Erdkörper berührt (tangent case) oder schneidet (secant case).Um die Abbildungsqualität bei der Darstellung größerer Gebiete zu erhöhen, lässt man den Projektionskörper die Erdoberfläche durchdringen (schneiden). Central Cylindrical vs. Mercator. "; This means that a 1,000 meter distance measured anywhere within a UTM zone will be no worse than + or - 1 meter off. In reality, Africa is actually HUGE! Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Projection Informations : Central Cylindrical Mercator; Creator: Unknown (1850 approx.) Or: → Selection by thumbnail → Select from list. Your efforts counts and respect from my side. Following a fixed compass bearing is only the shortest route if heading due north,south, east or west. Peel it like an orange evenly into sixty segments called “zones”. document.getElementById('mobilewarning').innerHTML=""; w=window.innerWidth; The Mercator projection vastly exaggerates aged imperialist power, at the expense of developing countries and continents like Africa that are shrunk to inferiority. I think it projecting particular zone vs. entire planet. With the UTM Zone, things will be very accurate or it supposed to be accurate for that particular zone, in your case UTM Zone 15N. This map's grid is rectangular and lines of latitude and longitude are parallel throughout. The maps are all the work of climate data scientist @neilrkaye. mobilewarn(); I was wondering where you were able to find coordinate points as used in the Mercator map projection to make those calculations. Um Winkeltreue zu erreichen, muss ein solches Flächenelement daher in Achsrichtung um denselben Faktor vergrößert werden. mm2.height = mm2.contentWindow.document.body.scrollHeight+20+"px";

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